[wpfilebase tag=”file” id=1205]
This is an annotated bibliography. Subscribers can click on the file above. The essays are in process.
Human genetic engineering. This is a great introductory article that explains defines human genetic engineering, explains different types, introduces how it works, and explains various Pros and Cons. I strongly suggest reading this article first.
About human gene editing. This article provides a general overview of human genetic engineering. It includes a basic introduction of the controversy and has links to other relevant articles.
Human Germline Modification: National and International Policies. The document identifies international laws that HGM is inconsistent with and identifies 40 countries that prohibit it.
Editing humanity. This short article explains many of the benefits to somatic modification but argues that germ line modification creates complex ethical and society issues that require discussion. It does not explicitly call for a (temporary) ban on this technology. As long as the reader understands the difference between somatic and germline engineering, it is a good first read.
Human genetic engineering and the pursuit of perfection. This article presents a great discussion of the main ethical issues related to human genetic engineering, including a focus all types. These ethical questions will come up in all of your debates.
Status Quo Germline Editing
US prepares to push human genetic engineering. This article explains that the late 2015 conference called by scientists and ethicists to (temporarily) ban human germline engineering is really a ruse and that the the scientists really organized the conference to share tips on how to do it. While this doesn’t support arguments on one side of the debate or another, it does highlight how important it is to understand that the technology is nearly ready for use.
British researchers get green light to genetically modify human embryos. The article discusses recent UK green lighting of of research on genetic modification of human embryos. These embryos will not be planted into a woman, but the research will observe how the embryos behave post fertilization.
China shocks world by genetically engineering human embryos. The article discusses efforts undertaken in China to genetically modify human embryos. Although the embryos are non-viable, considerable concern is expressed about largely unregulated human genetic engineering via gremline modification in China without regulation.
From — Center for Genetics and Society, 2015, About Human Germline Gene Editing, http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=8711 DOA: 4-24-16
What is CRISPR/Cas9?
CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is the newest, simplest and least expensive genome-editing tool. CRISPR was first identified in bacteria, where it functions as a defense against foreign DNA, either viral or plasmid. Cas9 is an associated protein. The CRISPR/Cas9 system relies on RNA–DNA base pairing to identify the targeted location in a genome, to produce a double-strand break in the existing DNA to disable the targeted gene, and to potentially insert new sequences at the point of the double-strand break.
Explanations of CRISPR
Why Gene- Editing Technology Has Scientists Excited, Jonathan Rockoff, Wall Street Journal (June 28, 2015).
- Figure 1: Functioning of Type II CRISPR-Cas Systems in Bacteria, Cas9 as a Versatile Tool for Engineering Biology, Prashant Mali, Melvin M. Esvelt & George M. Church, Nature Methods (Sept. 27, 2013).
- CRISPR, the Disruptor, Heidi Ledford, Nature News (June 3, 2015)
Support for Somatic Cell Modification but Human Germ Line Ban
Don’t edit the human germ line. This article argues for the editing of somatic (non-reproductie cells) but argues against the editing of germ line cells and embryos.
A prudent path. This article by many prominent scientists and geneticists argues for a moratorium on germ line cell modification until we know if the technology is safe.
Statement of NIH-funding of research using gene-editing technologies in human embryos. This Statement explains that the NIH supports somatic cell modification but not the modification of human embryos because of safety risks and ethical complications.
A Note on germline editing. From the White House Office of Science Technology and Policy, statement argues that there should not be any germ line editing until more research is done on the issue and it is more thoroughly discussed.
Report of the International Committee of Bioethics on the Human Genome and Human Rights. This report argues there should be a moratorium on human embryo modification until more research is done. When reading, you should be aware that the entire document is not about the resolution, but about questions generally related to genetics. The second part of the document is specific to the resolution, but the first part contains useful material about different types of standards/frameworks/decision rules that can be used to determine different ethical approaches with regard to genetics.
CRISPR genetic modification should not be used on humans. This brief article argues for a moratorium on human gremlin modification because it it is currently unsafe and we haven’t had time to discuss it as a democracy.
GMO Sapiens: The Life Changing Science of Designer Babies (Book)
The case against human genetic engineering. The title is better than the article, which just expresses some general concern with human genetic engineering. You should skip this if you are pressed for time.
Brave New Genome. This highly qualified author identifies many concerns cerated by human genetic engineering. Although the article is highly critical of germline engineering, the author does support an exception to the ban for monogenetic diseases for which there is no treatment alternative.
Extreme Genetic Engineering and the Human Future. This report is critical of all types of genetic engineering, human and animal.
US scientists urge ban on human genetic modification. This is just a brief article that highlights some of the emerging opposition to gremline modification. If you read the other Pro articles, you do not need to read this one, as this article really just highlights the other articles.
The threat of human genetic engineering. An older article (1998) that argues allowing HGE will inevitably be used to support eugenics.
Position Paper on Human Germline Modification. Strong opposition to human gremlin modification. The paper is older (1998), but it is highly qualified.
The hazards of human development gene modification. This brief post highlights how genetic modification could increase disease.
New technology may allow scientists to modify human genes: What could possibly go wrong? This isn’t the most qualified source, but it makes a strongly-worded argument that HGE will support eugenics.
Human nature on collision course with genetic engineering. This article reviews some of the major social harms of HGE.
Last scientist in Congress warns on human genetic engineering. Identifies some of the potential problems with human genetic engineering and calls for debate on the issue.
Billings PR, Hubbard R, Newman SA: Human germline gene modification: a dissent. Lancet. 1999, 353 (9167): 1873-1875.View ArticlePubMed
Frankel MS, Chapman AR: Human Inheritable Genetic Modifications. Assessing Scientific, Ethical, Religious and Policy Issues. American Association for the Advancement of Sciences. 2000, Search the article by entering the article title at http://shr.aaas.org/projects/human_enhance/reports/germline.pdf
Davis BD: Germ-line therapy: evolutionary and moral considerations. Hum Gene Ther. 1992, 3 (4): 361-363.View ArticlePubMed
Neel JV: Germ-line gene therapy: another view. Hum Gene Ther. 1993, 4 (2): 127-128.View ArticlePubMed
Glover J: What Sort of People Should There Be?. 1984, London: Penguin Books, 45-47.
Lewis CS: The Abolition of Man. 1965, New York: Macmillan, 69-71.
Ramsey P: Fabricated Man: The Ethics of Genetic Control. 1970, New Haven: Yale University Press
Sandel M: The case against perfection. Atl Mon. 2004, 293: 51-62.
Ishii T: Potential impact of human mitochondrial replacement on global policy regarding germline gene modification. Reprod Biomed Online. 2014, 29 (2): 150-155.View ArticlePubMed
Pro authors to do more research on
Marcy Darnovsky of the Center for Genetics and Society, who made a compelling case against using gene editing to modify the human germline
Dr David King, director of Human Genetics Alert,
Anne Scanlan, from the anti-abortion organisation Life,
International regulatory landscape and integration of corrective genome editing into in vitro fertilization. The article argues that while germ line modification is currently prohibited in many countries that it will soon become safe and can benefit many at high risk of genetic birth defects.
Ethical implications of human genetic engineering. Argues that a ban will fail and that we should instead regulate HGE.
How engineering the human body could combat climate change. This article argues humans could be engineered to reduce their energy demand.
Human engineering and climate change. The full paper referenced in the article above.
Genetically engineering humans: A Transhumanist perspective. This article argues HGE supports transhumanism. It also argues answers common objections to HGE.
Genetic engineering will create super intelligent humans
Paving stones leading to brighter futures
Loss of individuality due to genetic engineering
Benefits of human genetic engineering
Human embryo genetic modification is necessary
Genetically engineering humans isn’t so scary
Silver, Lee. (1998). Re-Making Eden. This book argues that human genetic engineering creates problems but that limits would be inconsistent with the free market principles of libertarianism.
Resnik, D. (1994). Debunking the slippery slope argument against human germ-line gene therapy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 19(1), 23-40.
Con authors to do more research on
John Harris, a utilitarian philosopher at Manchester University, who demanded that genetic engineering be made available with only minimal restrictions.
Sarah Norcross, director of Progress Educational Trust,
Dr Sarah Chan, chancellor’s fellow at Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics,
The science and ethics of human genetically engineered DNA (inging)
There are really good reasons why we should and shouldn’t genetically modify human embryos
Eight questions to ask before human genetic engineering goes mainstream
Effects of genetic engineering
Engineering the perfect baby
Extreme genetic engineering and the human future
Trusting the future? The ethics of human genetic modification
Genetic Engineering: The Past, Present, and Future
Designing life: Should babies be genetically engineered?
Playing God? Human Genetic Engineering and the Rationalization of Public Bioethical Debate
Genetically engineering humans: A step too far?
Scientists debate how far to go in editing human genes
We must be very careful with human genetic engineering
Human genetic engineering: Are we destroying ourselves?
5 Pros and Cons of Human genetic engineering
Fischer, B. (2013). The search for perfection: Understanding the motives of Nazi experimentation. Tulane Journal of International Affairs, 1(2).